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Operating System: The Maestro of Digital Devices

Imagine your computer as a bustling city, and the Operating System (OS) is like a superhero keeping everything organized. Just like a superhero has special powers, the OS helps your computer run smoothly. It’s the boss, telling all the parts what to do and making sure you can play games, watch videos, and do homework without any problems. So, let’s dive into the world of the OS, the superhero behind the screen! 🚀💻

Operating Systems

History of Operating Systems

1950s-1960s– Early computers with basic operating systems.
1960s-1970s– Introduction of batch processing.
1970s-1980s– Emergence of time-sharing systems.
– Birth of Unix, a powerful and flexible operating system.
1980s– Rise of personal computing.
– MS-DOS and early versions of Microsoft Windows for PCs.
1990s– Windows dominance in the PC market.
– Evolution of Apple’s Mac OS into macOS.
2000s-Present– Mobile OS takeover with Android (Google) and iOS (Apple).
Today– Diverse OS landscape with Windows, macOS, Android, iOS, and Linux.
Ongoing– Continuous evolution in response to technological advancements.

Type of Operating Systems and there Uses

Here’s an overview of some prominent types of operating systems and their common uses across various devices:

1. Windows:

  • Uses:
    • Personal computers (PCs), laptops, and tablets.
    • Gaming consoles (Xbox).
    • Servers (Windows Server OS).

2. macOS:

  • Uses:
    • Apple Macintosh computers (iMac, MacBook).
    • Laptops and desktops for creative work.

3. Linux:

  • Uses:
    • Servers (many web servers run on Linux).
    • Embedded systems (routers, smart TVs).
    • Developer environments.

4. Android:

  • Uses:
    • Smartphones and tablets.
    • Smart TVs.
    • Wearable devices.

5. iOS:

  • Uses:
    • iPhones and iPads.
    • iPod Touch.
    • Apple Watch.

6. Unix:

  • Uses:
    • Historically used on mainframes and servers.
    • Basis for Linux and macOS.

7. Chrome OS:

  • Uses:
    • Chromebooks and Chromeboxes.
    • Devices focused on web-based computing.

8. Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS):

  • Uses:
    • Embedded systems in real-time applications (e.g., medical devices, automotive systems).

9. Server Operating Systems:

  • Uses:
    • Dedicated to managing servers and network infrastructure.
    • Examples include Windows Server, Linux server distributions.

10. Embedded Operating Systems:

  • Uses:
    • Found in various embedded devices (e.g., routers, IoT devices, smart appliances).
    • Designed for specific functions and often resource-efficient.

11. Mobile Operating Systems:

  • Uses:
    • Powering smartphones and tablets.
    • Providing a platform for mobile applications.

12. Distributed Operating Systems:

  • Uses:
    • Managing a network of interconnected computers to work together as a single system.

Each type of operating system serves specific purposes based on its design, features, and compatibility with different devices. The diversity in operating systems caters to the varied needs of users across personal computing, mobile devices, servers, and specialized embedded systems.

Requirements For OS

The requirements for installing different types of operating systems can vary based on the specific OS and its version. Here are general requirements for some common operating systems:

1. Windows:

  • Windows 10:
    • Processor: 1 GHz or faster.
    • RAM: 1 GB (32-bit) or 2 GB (64-bit).
    • Storage: 32 GB or more.
    • Graphics: DirectX 9 or later with WDDM 1.0 driver.
    • Display: 800 x 600 resolution.

2. macOS:

  • macOS Catalina (10.15):
    • MacBook (2015 or later), MacBook Air/Pro (2012 or later).
    • RAM: 4 GB or more.
    • Storage: 12.5 GB available.
    • Graphics: Metal-supported graphics card.

3. Linux:

  • Ubuntu 20.04 LTS:
    • Processor: Dual-core 2 GHz or equivalent.
    • RAM: 4 GB.
    • Storage: 25 GB available.
    • Graphics: VGA screen (1024 x 768 resolution).

4. Android:

  • Android 11:
    • Variable depending on the specific device.
    • Common requirements include a compatible processor, RAM, and storage.

5. iOS:

  • iOS 14:
    • Variable depending on the specific device.
    • Common requirements include compatible iPhone, iPad, or iPod Touch models.

6. Chrome OS:

  • Chromebook:
    • Variable depending on the specific Chromebook model.
    • Common requirements include an Intel or ARM processor, RAM, and storage.

7. Real-Time Operating Systems (RTOS):

  • FreeRTOS:
    • Variable based on the specific embedded system.
    • Common requirements include minimal RAM and storage for resource efficiency.

8. Server Operating Systems:

  • Windows Server 2019:
    • Variable based on server role (e.g., minimum 512 MB RAM for core installation).
    • Storage: 32 GB or more.

9. Embedded Operating Systems:

  • Raspberry Pi OS:
    • Variable based on the specific Raspberry Pi model.
    • Common requirements include an SD card for storage.

10. Mobile Operating Systems:

  • Variable based on specific devices (e.g., iPhones, Android smartphones):
    • Common requirements include a compatible processor, RAM, and storage.

11. Distributed Operating Systems:

  • Variable based on specific distributed system architecture.
    • Typically requires multiple interconnected computers with compatible hardware.

These are general requirements, and it’s essential to check the official documentation of the specific operating system and version for detailed and up-to-date information. Additionally, some newer versions or feature-rich environments may have higher requirements for optimal performance.

MS-Windows Operating System Version & Additions

Windows 1.0 Series:

  1. Windows 1.0 (1985):
    • The initial version of Windows introducing a graphical user interface.
  2. Windows 2.0 (1987):
    • Enhanced features and better graphics support.

Windows 3.x Series:

  1. Windows 3.0 (1990):
    • Improved interface and enhanced multimedia capabilities.
  2. Windows 3.1 (1992):
    • Introduced TrueType fonts and better multimedia support.

Windows 9x Series:

  1. Windows 95 (1995):
    • A major release with the Start menu and Taskbar.
  2. Windows 98 (1998):
    • Enhanced hardware support and features.
  3. Windows Me (Millennium Edition) (2000):
    • Focused on multimedia and home networking.

Windows NT Series:

  1. Windows NT 4.0 (1996):
    • Aimed at business users with a more robust and stable architecture.

Windows 2000 Series:

  1. Windows 2000 (2000):
    • Merged Windows NT and Windows 98 features.

Windows XP Series:

  1. Windows XP (2001):
    • A popular and widely used version with a redesigned interface.

Windows Vista Series:

  1. Windows Vista (2007):
    • Introduced the Aero interface and enhanced security features.

Windows 7 Series:

  1. Windows 7 (2009):
    • Improved performance and streamlined user interface.

Windows 8 Series:

  1. Windows 8 (2012):
    • Introduced a touch-oriented interface and the Start screen.
  2. Windows 8.1 (2013):
    • Addressed user feedback with improvements and new features.

Windows 10 Series:

  1. Windows 10 (2015):
    • A continually updated version with a focus on a unified experience across devices.
  2. Windows 10 Version 1511 (November Update) (2015):
    • First major update to Windows 10.
  3. Windows 10 Version 1607 (Anniversary Update) (2016):
    • Introduced new features and improvements.
  4. Windows 10 Version 1703 (Creators Update) (2017):
    • Focused on creativity and 3D content.
  5. Windows 10 Version 1709 (Fall Creators Update) (2017):
    • Introduced Windows Mixed Reality.
  6. Windows 10 Version 1803 (April 2018 Update) (2018):
    • Emphasized Timeline and Focus Assist features.
  7. Windows 10 Version 1809 (October 2018 Update) (2018):
    • Included improvements and fixes.
  8. Windows 10 Version 1903 (May 2019 Update) (2019):
    • Introduced the Light theme and Windows Sandbox.
  9. Windows 10 Version 1909 (November 2019 Update) (2019):
    • A smaller update focused on performance improvements.
  10. Windows 10 Version 2004 (May 2020 Update) (2020):
    • Added features like Cortana and Virtual Desktops.
  11. Windows 10 Version 20H2 (October 2020 Update) (2020):
    • Focused on performance improvements and a refreshed Start menu.
  12. Windows 10 Version 21H1 (May 2021 Update) (2021):
    • Introduced improvements and features like Windows Hello camera improvements.
  13. Windows 10 Version 21H2 (October 2021 Update) (2021):
    • Focused on performance improvements and updates to the Taskbar.

Windows 11 Series:

Windows 11 is the latest major release of Microsoft’s Windows NT operating system, released on October 5, 2021. It succeeded Windows 10 (2015) and is available for free for any Windows 10 devices that meet the new Windows 11 system requirements.

Processor1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster with 2 or more cores on a compatible 64-bit processor or System on a Chip (SoC).
RAM4 gigabyte (GB).
Storage64 GB or larger storage device Note: See below under “More information on storage space to keep Windows 11 up-to-date” for more details.
System firmwareUEFI, Secure Boot capable. Check here for information on how your PC might be able to meet this requirement.
TPMTrusted Platform Module (TPM) version 2.0. Check here for instructions on how your PC might be enabled to meet this requirement.
Graphics cardCompatible with DirectX 12 or later with WDDM 2.0 driver.
DisplayHigh definition (720p) display that is greater than 9” diagonally, 8 bits per colour channel.
Internet connection and Microsoft accountWindows 11 Pro for personal use and Windows 11 Home require internet connectivity and a Microsoft account during initial device set-up.
Switching a device out of Windows 11 Home in S mode also requires internet connectivity. Learn more about S mode here.
For all Windows 11 editions, internet access is required to perform updates and to download and take advantage of some features. A Microsoft account is required for some features.

You can Also check your system specification from computer properties or go to Start and type system information.